Between the growing number of inhabitants and the increasing number of boats looking to replenish their on board supplies, water was definitely a growing concern. These acqueducts supplied the city with fresh clean water for almost 100 years (from 1816 - 1912), this was an enormous public works operation which was designed to replenish the dwindling freshwater supply to the city of Livorno. The construction ran into many roadblocks (the French occupation in 1799, the death of the architect) but finally the Queen of Etruria, Maria Luisa (and Napoleons sister), got things moving and finished.
Starting in the hills, at the source Colognole, the aqueduct runs over 15 km. Several areas along the tract have been cleared for hikes and trails where you can find a series of stone arches, small buildings, tunnels and cisterns all used for the purification and transport of the water.